VES is a straightforward electrical resistivity method usually conducted using one of two electrode arrays: Schlumberger or Wenner array(s).  These are generally 4-pin resistivity survey set-ups with progressively larger spacings between the current and/or potential electrodes.  Short electrode spacings measure the resistivity distribution in the shallow subsurface, while the longer spacings measure deeper into the subsurface.  By taking measurements starting with a short spacing stepping to larger, a 1D measurement, termed a ‘sounding’, of the resistivity as a function of depth is generated through a modeling process.

Applicable on: Soil, Rock and Groundwater

Test for: Layering in soils, top-of-bedrock, electrical ground mat design, groundwater table, and salt water intrusion.